Brain Fuck - C

programming language c

Earlier this year I was playing around with making simple programming languages and came across "BrainFuck". I, being bored decided to write my own BrainFuck Interpreter and of course made a few changes along the way (only in I/O functions, added integer support since BrainFuck only deals with characters). If interested, I recommend reading more information about BrainFuck on Wikipedia.

The Full download including Source and examples can be found on GitHub.

Here are the basic rules of BrainFuck with some added I/O Functions.

brainfuck command C equivalent
> ++CP;
< --CP;
+ ++*CP;
- --*CP;
[ while (*CP) {
] }
. printf("%c",(char)*CP)
: printf("%u",*CP);
, while (scanf("%c", CP) != 1);
; while (scanf("%u", CP) != 1);
M Print out Cell and Pointers
I Print out Instruction Pointer

CP is the Cell Pointer
Below are various scripts written in BrainFuck

Hello World

+++++ +++++
[
    > +++++ ++
    > +++++ +++++
    > +++
    > +

    <<<< -
]
> ++ .
> + .
+++++ ++ .
.
+++ .
> ++ .
<< +++++ +++++ +++++ .
> .
+++ .
----- - .
----- --- .
> + .
> .
M

Hello World Version 2

+++++
[
    > +++++ +++++ +++
    < -
]
+++++ +++++
[
    >> +++++ ++++
    << -
]
>> +++++ ++

< +++++ ++ . ----- --
> ++++ .  +++++ ++ .. +++ . ----- ----- ----

<< +++
[
    >>> +++++ +++++
    <<< -
]
>>> ++ .

<< +++++ +++++ +++++ +++++ ++ . ----- ----- ----- ----- --
> +++++ +++++ ++++ . +++ . ------ . -------- . ---
> + .

M

3 Nested While loops

+++
M
[
    > +++
    [
        > +++
        [
            -
            M
        ]
        < -
    ]
    < -
]
M

Below is the source for the BrainFuck Interpreter

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define DEFAULT_IN_FILE "in.bf"
#define DEFAULT_MEMORY_SIZE 8

char inFile[256] = DEFAULT_IN_FILE;

/* function definitions */
void runInstructions();
int loadFile(char inFile[256]);
void printInstructions();
void clearDataBuffer();
void printDataBuffer();

unsigned int* cell; /* cell buffer, all program cell is stored in here */
unsigned int cellSize = 0;

unsigned int IP; // instruction pointer

unsigned char* instructions; /* the Instructions loaded from input file */
unsigned int instructionsSize = 0;

unsigned int* CP = NULL; /* cell Pointer */


int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    int i;
    for(i = 1; i < argc; i++) { /* handle parameters */
        if(strcmp(argv[i], "-i") == 0) { /* input file */
            if( i + 1 < argc) {
                sprintf(inFile, "%s", argv[i + 1]);
            } else {  /* improper format */
                return -1;
            }
        } else if(strcmp(argv[i], "-size") == 0) { /* size of cell buffer */
            if( i + 1 < argc) {
                cell = (unsigned int*) malloc( atoi(argv[i + 1]) * sizeof(unsigned int) );
                cellSize = atoi(argv[i + 1]);
            } else {  /* improper format */
                return -1;
            }
        }
    }
    if(cellSize == 0) {
        cell = (unsigned int*) malloc( DEFAULT_MEMORY_SIZE * sizeof(unsigned int) );
        cellSize = DEFAULT_MEMORY_SIZE;
    }
    CP = cell;

    loadFile(inFile);
    clearDataBuffer();
    runInstructions();
    return 0;
}

void runInstructions() {
    int i; // used in for loops
    int numCloseBrackets = 0;
    int numOpenBrackets = 0;

    for(IP = 0; IP < instructionsSize; IP++) {
        switch(instructions[IP]) {
            case '>': /* INC/DEC */
                ++CP;

                break;
            case '<':
                --CP;
                break;
            case '+': /* INC/DEC POINTER */
                ++(*CP);
                break;
            case '-':
                --(*CP);
                break;
            case '[': /* WHILE LOOP */
                if(*CP == 0) { // if CP == 0, then skip to the next matching ']'
                    numOpenBrackets = 0;
                    for(i = IP + 1; i < instructionsSize; i++) {
                        if(instructions[i] == '[') {
                            numOpenBrackets++;
                        } else if(instructions[i] == ']') {
                            if(numOpenBrackets == 0) {
                                IP = i;
                                break;
                            } else {
                                numOpenBrackets--;
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
                break;
            case ']': /* END WHILE*/
                if(*CP != 0) { // if CP != 0, loopback to the previous matching'['
                    numCloseBrackets = 0;
                    for(i = IP - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                        if(instructions[i] == ']') {
                            numCloseBrackets++;
                        }else if(instructions[i] == '[') {
                            if(numCloseBrackets == 0) {
                                IP = i;
                                break;
                            } else {
                                numCloseBrackets--;
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
                break;
            case '.':  /* OUTPUT */
                printf("%c",(char)*CP);
                break;
            case ':':
                printf("%u",*CP);
                break;
            case ',': /* INPUT */
                while (scanf("%c", CP) != 1);
                break;
            case ';':
                while (scanf("%u", CP) != 1);
                break;
            case 'M': /* print Data Buffer */
                printDataBuffer();
                break;
            case 'I': /* print Instructions as is*/
                printInstructions();
                break;
            default:
                /* unknown command, ignore it */
                break;
        }
    }
}


/*
 *
 */
int loadFile(char inFile[256]) {
    FILE *fp;
    fp=fopen(inFile, "r");
    if(fp == NULL) {
        return -1;
    }
    fseek(fp, 0, SEEK_END); // seek to end of file
    instructionsSize = ftell(fp); // get current file pointer
    rewind (fp);
    instructions = (char*) malloc( instructionsSize );
    int i;
    for(i = 0; i < instructionsSize; i++) {
        instructions[i] = ' ';
    }
    if(instructions == NULL) {
        return -1;
    }
    fread (instructions,1,instructionsSize,fp);
    fclose(fp);
    return 0;
}

void printInstructions() {
    int i;
    for(i = 0; i < instructionsSize; i++) {
        printf("%c", instructions[i]);
    }
    printf("\n");
}

void clearDataBuffer() {
    int i;
    for(i = 0; i < cellSize; i++) {
        cell[i] = 0;
    }
}

void printDataBuffer() {
    int i;
    printf("\n");
    for(i = 0; i < cellSize; i++) {
        printf("[%d]=%d", i, cell[i]);
        if(CP == &cell[i]) {
            printf(" <-- (CP)");
        }
        printf("\n");
    }
    printf("\nIP = %d\n", IP);
}

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